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Setting up the 7nodes example


Clone the quorum-examples repo.

git clone


Any account/encryption keys used in the quorum-examples repo are for demonstration and testing purposes only. Before running a real environment, new keys should be generated using Geth’s account tool, Tessera’s -keygen option, and Constellation’s --generate-keys option

Prepare your environment

A 7 node Quorum network must be running before the example can be run. The quorum-examples repo provides the means to create a pre-configured sample network in minutes.

There are 3 ways to start the sample network, each method is detailed below:

  1. By running a pre-configured Vagrant virtual-machine environment which comes complete with Quorum, Constellation, Tessera and the 7nodes example already installed. Bash scripts provided in the examples are used to create the sample network.
  2. By running docker-compose against a preconfigured compose file to create the sample network
  3. By installing Quorum and Tessera/Constellation locally and using bash scripts provided in the examples to create the sample network

Your environment must be prepared differently depending on the method being used to run the example.

Running with Vagrant

  1. Install VirtualBox
  2. Install Vagrant
  3. Download and start the Vagrant instance (note: running vagrant up takes approx 5 mins):

    git clone
    cd quorum-examples
    vagrant up
    vagrant ssh
  4. To shutdown the Vagrant instance, run vagrant suspend. To delete it, run vagrant destroy. To start from scratch, run vagrant up after destroying the instance.

Troubleshooting Vagrant

  • If you are behind a proxy server, please see
  • If you are using macOS and get an error saying that the ubuntu/xenial64 image doesn’t exist, please run sudo rm -r /opt/vagrant/embedded/bin/curl. This is usually due to issues with the version of curl bundled with Vagrant.
  • If you receive the error default: cp: cannot open '/path/to/geth.ipc' for reading: Operation not supported after running vagrant up, run ./ within the 7nodes directory on your local machine. This will remove temporary files created after running 7nodes locally and will enable vagrant up to execute correctly.

Troubleshooting Vagrant: Memory usage

  • The Vagrant instance is allocated 6 GB of memory. This is defined in the Vagrantfile, v.memory = 6144. This has been deemed a suitable value to allow the VM and examples to run as expected. The memory allocation can be changed by updating this value and running vagrant reload to apply the change.

  • If the machine you are using has less than 8 GB memory you will likely encounter system issues such as slow down and unresponsiveness when starting the Vagrant instance as your machine will not have the capacity to run the VM. There are several steps that can be taken to overcome this:

    1. Shutdown any running processes that are not required
    2. If running the 7nodes example, reduce the number of nodes started up. See the 7nodes: Reducing the number of nodes for info on how to do this.
    3. Set up and run the examples locally. Running locally reduces the load on your memory compared to running in Vagrant.

Running with Docker

  1. Install Docker (
    • If your Docker distribution does not contain docker-compose, follow this to install Docker Compose
    • Make sure your Docker daemon has at least 4G memory
    • Required Docker Engine 18.02.0+ and Docker Compose 1.21+
  2. Download and run docker-compose
    git clone
    cd quorum-examples
    docker-compose up -d
  3. By default, the Quorum network is created with Tessera privacy managers and Istanbul BFT consensus. To use Raft consensus, set the environment variable QUORUM_CONSENSUS=raft before running docker-compose
    QUORUM_CONSENSUS=raft docker-compose up -d
  4. Run docker ps to verify that all quorum-examples containers (7 nodes and 7 tx managers) are healthy
  5. Run docker logs <container-name> -f to view the logs for a particular container
  6. Note: to run the 7nodes demo, use the following snippet to open geth Javascript console to a desired node (using container name from docker ps) and send a private transaction
    $ docker exec -it quorum-examples_node1_1 geth attach /qdata/dd/geth.ipc
    Welcome to the Geth JavaScript console!
    instance: Geth/node1-istanbul/v1.7.2-stable/linux-amd64/go1.9.7
    coinbase: 0xd8dba507e85f116b1f7e231ca8525fc9008a6966
    at block: 70 (Thu, 18 Oct 2018 14:49:47 UTC)
     datadir: /qdata/dd
     modules: admin:1.0 debug:1.0 eth:1.0 istanbul:1.0 miner:1.0 net:1.0 personal:1.0 rpc:1.0 txpool:1.0 web3:1.0
    > loadScript('/examples/private-contract.js')
  7. Shutdown Quorum Network
    docker-compose down

Troubleshooting Docker

  1. Docker is frozen
    • Check if your Docker daemon is allocated enough memory (minimum 4G)
  2. Tessera crashes due to missing file/directory
    • This is due to the location of quorum-examples folder is not shared
    • Please refer to Docker documentation for more details:
  3. If you run Docker inside Docker, make sure to run the container with --privileged

Running locally


Quorum must be run on Ubuntu-based/macOS machines. Constellation can only be run on Ubuntu-based machines. Running the examples therefore requires an Ubuntu-based/macOS machine. If running the examples using Constellation then an Ubuntu-based machine is required.

  1. Install Golang
  2. Download and build Quorum:

    git clone
    cd quorum
    GETHDIR=`pwd`; export PATH=$GETHDIR/build/bin:$PATH
    cd ..
  3. Download and build Tessera (see README for build options)

    git clone
    cd tessera
    mvn install
  4. Download quorum-examples

    git clone

Starting the 7nodes sample network


This is not required if docker-compose has been used to prepare the network as the docker-compose command performs these actions for you

Shell scripts are included in the examples to make it simple to configure the network and start submitting transactions.

All logs and temporary data are written to the qdata folder.

The sample network can be created to run using Istanbul BFT, Raft or Clique POA consensus mechanisms. In the following commands replace {consensus} with one of raft, istanbul or clique depending on the consensus mechanism you want to use.

  1. Navigate to the 7nodes example directory, configure the Quorum nodes and initialize accounts & keystores:
    cd path/to/7nodes
  2. Start the Quorum and privacy manager nodes (Constellation or Tessera):

    • If running in Vagrant:

      By default, Tessera will be used as the privacy manager. To use Constellation run the following:
      ./{consensus} constellation

    • If running locally:

      ./{consensus} tessera --tesseraOptions "--tesseraJar /path/to/tessera-app.jar"

      By default, {consensus} will look in /home/vagrant/tessera/tessera-app/target/tessera-app-{version}-app.jar for the Tessera jar. --tesseraOptions must be provided so that the start script looks in the correct location for the Tessera jar:

      Alternatively, the Tessera jar location can be specified by setting the environment variable TESSERA_JAR.

  3. You are now ready to start sending private/public transactions between the nodes

  4. To stop the network:


Running the example

quorum-examples includes some simple transaction contracts to demonstrate the privacy features of Quorum. See the 7nodes Example page for details on how to run them.


Reducing the number of nodes

It is easy to reduce the number of nodes used in the example network. You may want to do this for memory usage reasons or just to experiment with a different network configuration.

For example, to run the example with 5 nodes instead of 7, the following changes need to be made:

  1. Reduce number of nodes being started

    1. In {consensus}

      Comment out the following lines used to start Quorum nodes 6 & 7

      # PRIVATE_CONFIG=qdata/c6/tm.ipc nohup geth --datadir qdata/dd6 $ARGS --raftport 50406 --rpcport 22005 --port 21005 --unlock 0 --password passwords.txt 2>>qdata/logs/6.log &
      # PRIVATE_CONFIG=qdata/c7/tm.ipc nohup geth --datadir qdata/dd7 $ARGS --raftport 50407 --rpcport 22006 --port 21006 --unlock 0 --password passwords.txt 2>>qdata/logs/7.log &

    2. In or (depending on which privacy manager you are using):

      Change the 2 instances of for i in {1..7} to for i in {1..5}

  2. private-contract.js by default sends a transaction to node 7. As node 7 will no longer be started this must be updated to instead send to node 5:

    1. Copy node 5’s public key from ./keys/

    2. Replace the existing privateFor in private-contract.js with the key copied from key, e.g.:

      var simple =, {from:web3.eth.accounts[0], data: bytecode, gas: 0x47b760, privateFor: ["R56gy4dn24YOjwyesTczYa8m5xhP6hF2uTMCju/1xkY="]}, function(e, contract) {...}

  3. Update the list of nodes involved in consensus

    • If using Raft
      1. Remove node 6 and node 7’s enode addresses from permissioned-nodes.json (i.e. the entries with raftport 50406 and 50407)
    • If using IBFT
      1. Find the 20-byte address representations of node 6 and node 7’s nodekey (nodekeys located at qdata/dd{i}/geth/nodekey). There are many ways to do this, one is to run a script making use of ethereumjs-wallet:
        const wlt = require('ethereumjs-wallet');
        var nodekey = '1be3b50b31734be48452c29d714941ba165ef0cbf3ccea8ca16c45e3d8d45fb0';
        var wallet = wlt.fromPrivateKey(Buffer.from(nodekey, 'hex'));
        console.log('addr: ' + wallet.getAddressString());
      2. Use istanbul-tools to decode the extraData field in istanbul-genesis.json
        git clone
        cd istanbul-tools
        ./build/bin/istanbul extra decode --extradata <...>
      3. Copy the output into a new .toml file and update the formatting to the following:
        vanity = "0x0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000"
        validators = [
      4. Remove the addresses of node 6 and node 7 from the validators list
      5. Use istanbul-tools to encode the .toml as extraData
        ./build/bin/istanbul extra encode --config /path/to/conf.toml
      6. Update the extraData field in istanbul-genesis.json with output from the encoding

After making these changes, the {consensus}, {consensus}, and ./ private-contract.js scripts can be run as normal. You can then follow steps described above to verify that node 5 can see the transaction payload and that nodes 2-4 are unable to see the payload.

Using a Tessera remote enclave

Tessera v0.9 introduced the ability to run the privacy manager’s enclave as a separate process from the Transaction Manager. This is a more secure way of being able to manage and interact with your keys.

To start a sample 7nodes network that uses remote enclaves run ./{consensus} tessera-remote. By default this will start 7 Transaction Managers, the first 4 of which use a remote enclave. If you wish to change this number, you will need to add the extra parameter --remoteEnclaves X in the --tesseraOptions, e.g. ./{consensus} tessera-remote --tesseraOptions "--remoteEnclaves 7".